There are different ways to categorize AI systems, and one commonly used classification is based on the capabilities and characteristics of the systems. Here are four types of AI based on this classification:
Reactive Machines: Reactive machines are the most basic type of AI system. They do not have memory or the ability to learn from past experiences. These systems can only react to the current situation based on the available input and predefined rules. They do not have a concept of the past or the ability to plan for the future. Examples of reactive machines include chess-playing computers that make moves based on the current board configuration but do not consider previous games or learn from them.
Limited Memory: Limited memory AI systems can retain some past information to improve their performance. They can use past experiences or data to make decisions or predictions. These systems have a short-term memory that allows them to consider recent events when responding to the current situation. Self-driving cars, for instance, use data from sensors and cameras to make decisions about speed, braking, and lane changes by considering the current and immediate past inputs.
Theory of Mind: Theory of mind AI systems have a deeper level of understanding and can attribute mental states to themselves and others. These systems can understand and predict human behavior based on their understanding of emotions, beliefs, intentions, and desires. They can model the mental states of other agents and use that information to interact more effectively. While theory of mind AI systems are still in early stages of development, they have the potential to improve human-AI interactions and create more sophisticated virtual assistants.
Self-Aware AI: Self-aware AI is the most advanced and hypothetical form of AI. This type of AI would possess consciousness, self-awareness, and a sense of identity. It would not only understand the world but also its own existence and place within it. Self-aware AI would have subjective experiences and be able to reflect on its own thoughts and actions. While self-aware AI is a topic of philosophical and speculative discussions, it has not been achieved in practice.
It’s important to note that the last two types of AI, theory of mind and self-aware AI, are more speculative and theoretical, and we are not currently at a stage where these types of AI systems exist in practice. The first two types, reactive machines and limited memory, are the ones that have been developed and deployed in various real-world applications.